Computer technology is one of the fastest growing technology and progress. Computers that exist today have reached a very amazing ability. But the awesomeness of the most sophisticated computers that exist today is still not able to satisfy the wishes of human beings who dream to create a Supercomputer that really has a super speed. The computer that would later be worthy to really call this Super Computer is Quantum Computer. This theory of quantum computers was first coined by physicists from Argonne National Laboratory some 20 years ago. Paul Benio ff was the first person to apply the theory of quantum physics to the computer world in 1981.
The usual computer we use every day is a digital computer. Digital computers are very different from those super quantum computers. Digital computers work with the help of microprocessors in the form of small chips composed of many transistors. A microprocessor is usually better known as the Central Processing Unit (CPU) and is the ‘heart’ of the computer. The first microprocessor was the Intel 4004 introduced in 1971. The first this computer could only do the sum and subtraction calculations only. The computer memory uses a binary system or stale number system s (0 and 1) that are recognized as BIT (short for Binary digit). The conversion of the commonly used python numbers 1 (a number based on
10 having values 0 to 9) is as follows:
0 = 0
1 = 1
2 = 10
3 = 11
4 = 100
5 = 101
6 = 110
7 = 111
8 = 1000
9 = 1001
10 = 1010
11 = 1011
12 = 1100
13 = 1101
14 = 1110
15 = 1111
16 = 10000
17 = 10001
This system is what we use when we process information using a computer. Quantum Computer or quantum computers utilize the phenomenon of ‘strange’ which is called as superposition. In quantum mechanics, a particle can be in two states at once. This is the state of superposition. In quantum computers, other than 0 and 1 are also known superpositions and both. This means that the state can be 0 and 1, not just 0 or 1 like on a regular computer. Quantum computers do not use Bits but QUBITS (Quantum Bits). Because of its ability to be in multiple states, quantum computers have the potential to perform simultaneous calculations so much faster than digital computers.
Quantum computers use particles that can be in two states at once, such as atoms at the same time being excited and unexcited, or photons (light particles) in two different places at the same time. What does this mean?
Atom has a spin configuration. Spin atom can up (up), can also down (down). For example, when the atom spin is pointed up (up) we give 1 symbol, while the spin down is 0 (as in the binary system in a digital computer). The atoms are in a superposition state (having spin up and down simultaneously) until we make a measurement. The measurement action forces the atom to ‘choose’ either of those two possibilities. This means that after we make the measurements, the atoms are not in a superposition state. The measured atoms have a fixed spin: up or down.
When this concept is applied in quantum computers, the state of superposition occurs during the calculation process. The calculation system on this quantum computer is different from the digital computer. Digital computers do linear calculations, while quantum computers do all calculations simultaneously (because there are multiple states all calculations can take place simultaneously in all states). This means there are many possible calculations. To know the answer (the result of the calculation) we must do the measurement of the qubit. This qubit measurement action stops the interesting process and forces the system to ‘select’ one of these events. The calculation system on this quantum computer is different from the digital computer. Digital computers do linear calculations, while quantum computers do all calculations simultaneously (because there are multiple states all calculations can take place simultaneously in all states). This means there are many possible calculations. To know the answer (the result of the calculation) we must do the measurement of the qubit. This qubit measurement action stops the calculation process and forces the system to ‘select’ any of the possible answers.
With this calculation parallelism system, we can imagine how fast quantum computers are. The most sophisticated digital computers today (equivalent to 40 qubit quantum computers) have the ability to process all the data in the phone book worldwide (to find a particular phone number) within a month. If using a quantum computer this process takes only 27 minutes!
There is another ‘peculiar’ phenomenon of quantum mechanics which is also utilized in quantum computer technology: Entanglement. If two atoms get a certain force (outside force) the two atoms can enter in an ‘entangled’ state. The interconnected atoms in this entanglement will remain connected even if they are far apart. The analogy is that the atoms are a pair of people who have ‘telepathy’. If one is pinched, then the partner (wherever he is) will feel pain. The treatment of one atom affects the state of the partner’s atom. If one has a spin up (we can only find out after the measurement) Then we immediately know that his partner must have spin down without us need to measure it again. It represents a super-fast communication system. Communication using a quantum computer can reach such a remarkable speed because information from one place to another can be transferred instantly. So fast that it looks as if it beats the speed of light!
Currently, technological developments have produced quantum computers up to 7 qubits, but according to existing research and analysis, in the next few years, quantum computer technology can reach 100 qubits. We can imagine how fast the future computer will be. All the calculations that typically take months, years and even centuries can eventually take place in just minutes if we use the super-sophisticated and super-fast quantum computer.
In the future we will be using computers that are no longer composed of mini transistors as now, quantum computers no longer require increasingly crowded computer chips because of the more multiplied number of transistors needed to improve computer performance. Future computers are actually filled with organic fluids as their ‘heart’. This organic liquid contains atoms/particles that can be in the state of the superposition. This means, we really use natural organic substances to be a sophisticated ‘calculator’ because it turns out organic liquids from nature have counting talent!